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p0f v2 is a passive operating system fingerprinting tool.
It can identify the OS on:
- machines that connect to your box (SYN mode),
- machines you connect to (SYN+ACK mode),
- machines you cannot connect to (RST+ mode),
- machines whose communications you can observe.
P0f can also detect or measure the following:
- firewall presence, NAT use,
- existence of a load balancer setup,
- the distance to the remote system and its uptime,
- other guy's network hookup (DSL, OC3, avian carriers) and his ISP.